Architecture is constantly evolving and being built in every different corner of the world following varying thought processes with different emotional values attached to it. But some creations tend to stick around a little longer than one might have thought. The aesthetics, the cultural context, and the technical marvel combined create an enormous impact on human minds. This impact is indeed the driving factor behind curating lists of the finest.
A Swiss foundation called New 7 Wonders started a campaign in 2000 to formulate a list of new seven wonders of the world as the existing one was made in the 2nd century and only out of which – The Pyramids of Giza, are still standing today. The campaign was conducted online by voting and around 100 million people became a part of this by casting their votes. The final list was announced in 2007.
Great Wall of China
The world’s largest building construction spread across around 5500 miles; this historical creation is the first on the seven wonders of the world list. It is a series of fortifications built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China around the 7th century. The Great wall is two parallel walls covering long stretches to protect various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.
The existing stretch consists of several ramparts, wall sections, trenches, and individual buildings. Initially, the wall was constructed using stones, rammed earth, and wood. Bricks were used in abundance in many areas of the wall after their discovery along with lime and tiles. Barracks, stables, and armories were constructed near the inner surface of the wall.
Apart from being the seven wonders of the world, Chichen Itza is a large pre-Columbian city constructed by the Maya People of the terminal classic period. It is located in Tinum Municipality on the Yucatan Peninsula in Mexico and flourished around the 9th and 10th centuries CE. The site is a blend of various architectural styles including the ones witnessed in Central Mexico and the Pucc and the Chenes style of lowlands of Northern Maya.
It is one of the most visited archaeological sites in Mexico and home to the largest sporting field called Tlachtli in America. Many temples and monuments were constructed, of which the most noteworthy is the stepped Pyramid El Castillo. This one rises 79 feet above the main plaza and features 365 steps in total which is equivalent to the number of days in a year. The setting sun casts a shadow on the pyramid and during the spring and autumnal equinoxes that shadow exhibits a serpent slithering down the north stairway; a snake head of stone lies at the base.
Petra is an archaeological and historic city of Jordan originally known as Raqmu or Raqemo to its inhabitants. It is located in the basin surrounded by mountains flanking the Arabah valley and lies adjacent to the mountain of Jabal Al-Madbah. After an Arab tribe called Nabataeans made it their capital, it flourished and became a significant location beautified with chiseled dwellings, temples, and tombs out of sandstone by the Nabataeans along with being an important trade center.
Petra has also been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1985 along with being one of the seven wonders of the world. It is referred to as ‘Rose Red city’ due to the stone color it is carved from and is famous for its rock-cut architecture and water conduit system. The architecture of Petra also reflects Hellenistic architectural style along with revealing the different cultures that the inhabitants traded with.
It is a 15th-century Inca Citadel located in the eastern Cordillera of Southern Peru. This one is situated on a 2430-meter mountain ridge and was declared a UNESCO Heritage Site in 1983. The usage and names of the structures are unknown as the Incas had no written language and the current existing discoveries are from the supposed analysis of the modern archaeologists.
This is one of the Seven Wonders of the World which was constructed in classical Inca style using polished dry stone walls. The three primary structures of Machu Picchu are the Temple of the Sun, the Intihuatana, and the Room of the Three Windows. The site is divided into an agricultural sector and an urban sector with two different towns called the upper town and lower town. The outlying buildings of the site are reconstructed to get a better understanding of the architecture and construction style.
Christ the Redeemer
An art deco statue of Jesus Christ in Rio De Janeiro standing on the 700-meter-high peak of Mount Corcovado is the next amongst the seven wonders of the world. It is supposed to be constructed between 1922 and 1931 when some Brazilians feared the emergence of Godlessness. It was created by French sculptor Paul Landowski and constructed by Brazilian engineer Heitor Da Silva Costa.
It is a 30-meter tall statue excluding the 8-meter pedestal and has 28 meters wide arms. The statue is erected in reinforced concrete and soapstone weighing 635 metric tons. The statue is a cultural icon of the city and a symbol of Christianity and peace around the world.
Colosseum is an oval amphitheater in the center of Rome city built during the reign of Emperor Vespasian and completed in 80 AD under his heir and successor – Titus. It is the largest standing amphitheater in the world to date with a capacity of 50,000 spectators. The structure is a complex system of Vaults and measures 620 ft by 513 ft. The materials used for the construction of this wonder are travertine limestone, tuff, and brick-faced concrete.
It witnessed gladiator fights, reenactments of famous battles, public spectacles, executions, and dramas based on Roman mythology. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions of Rome and one of the engineering feats that has been included on the seven wonders of the word list. The outer wall is estimated to have required 1,00,000 cubic meters of travertine stone set together by 300 tons of iron clamps and is believed to have not used any mortar for binding. The arcades of the structure witnesses a combination of Doric, Corinthian, and Ionic order half-columns while the attic is accentuated with Corinthian pilasters.
Taj Mahal is a mausoleum complex situated on the banks of river Yamuna in the Indian city of Agra. It is one of the seven wonders of the world and considered the jewel of Muslim art in India itched in white marble. The built form is regarded as one of the finest examples of Mughal architecture. Taj Mahal was built by emperor Shah Jahan to commemorate his wife Begum Mumtaz Mahal who died in 1631. The completion of the structure took around 22 years and the constant efforts of 20,000 workers.
The facade of the main mausoleum features floral and geometric patterns engraved with 28 different semi-precious stones. The other parts of the mausoleum are carved with verses from the Holy Quran in black color. The thought behind the construction was to carve a replica of Mumtaz’s home in heaven on earth with a fine blend of Persian, Islamic, and Indian architectural styles.